Reduction of Prejudice
"Modeling Prejudice Reduction: Spatialized
Game Theory and the Contact Hypothesis" forthcoming in Public
Affairs Quarterly, University of Illinois Press.
"Reducing Prejudice: A Spatialized Game-Theoretic
Model for the Contact Hypothesis" from Artificial Life IX (2004), MIT
These are all interactive programs for the contact
This allows for a great deal of experimentation, including:
Different sets of initial strategies
Different background arrangements: mixed by color or segregated
Different game-theoretic payoffs
In each case you can watch the dynamics of prejudicial and non-prejudicial strategies
across the array.
Java Applet that has eight color-blind strategies
plus prejudicial tit-for-tat (plays tit for tat
with its own fixed "kind" and defects against others). If your computer
has trouble running the java applet and you have Microsoft Windows, then try
MS WINDOWS (Win9x, 2000, XP)
To run any of these programs, you first have to download
glut32.dll and place
it in the same folder, and you will also need to set your screen
resolution to at least 1024 by 768 pixels (right-click
anywhere on the emptiness of your desktop, choose "Properties" and
click the "Settings" tab in the upper-right corner; in the right-bottom
corner you will find a slider that changes your "screen area" aka resolution).
color-blind strategies plus prejudicial tit-for-tat (plays tit for tat
with its own fixed "kind" and defects against others).
has all 64 possible combination of color-discriminating Markov strategies.
Instructions for using the Windows programs:
Different sets of initial strategies: Click on the strategy description
you want to
eliminate from the set. Its name will turn grey and it will no longer
appear on 'restart'.
Different background arrangements: 'C' toggles between segregated
and mixed environments
Different game-theoretic payoffs: Click on the matrix to set new options.
Toggling with the indicated capital letters allows you to set different
tao set whether PTFT gets an additional 'social identification' point
its own color, and whether you are viewing background colors or behavioral
Different patterns of strategies can also be set by 'painting' them
into the initial
NOTE: If you want to transport this program to another directory, be
sure to put
'glut32.dll' in the same directory. The program will not operate without
Should you be interested in pursuing research in these or related
directions, let us know.
We'll be happy to provide help and source code.